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CF Cycle for Life is a cycle event which aims to raise awareness and funds to support emerging cystic fibrosis research. The mission of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation is to cure cystic fibrosis and to provide all people with the disease the opportunity to lead full, productive lives by funding research and drug development, promoting individualized treatment, and ensuring access to high-quality, specialized care.

Volunteer Roles and Responsibilities: Volunteers can be as young as 13 if volunteering with parent. Otherwise volunteers should be 16 and over. Please wear close-toed shoes and casual or athletic attire.

Volunteers will receive a T-shirt to wear. If you would like to volunteer but cannot make the entire time listed, please let me know because we can find a time that works for you. Special Olympics Southern California enriches the lives of more than 34, athletes with intellectual disabilities and their communities in Southern California through sports, education, and athlete health. We are looking for great volunteers who would like to serve as Delegation Assistants at an upcoming Softball Competition in Lakewood on Saturday October 6th from 7: The role of a Delegation Assistant is to assist their assigned Special Olympics Softball team with warmups, lunch distribution, and making sure their team is at their assigned fields on time.

All tasks are with the help of the team's Head Coach and Team Volunteers. Don't miss your chance to become one of our volunteers needed to create a transformative experience for the athletes with intellectual disabilities who will compete in softball. No experience is required; just a great attitude, a desire to serve the community, and enthusiasm of spending the day with our athletes and staff.

Please note that the minimum age to volunteer is 14 years old. Please remember to fill out a minor volunteer waiver form if minors under 18 are attending projects. The form can be found on L. Register directly for the event at: For questions, please email Sean Minnihan at sminnihan sosc. Help beautify and restore the natural flora and fauna of Debs Park. We ask you to join us in removing undesirable weeds and watering our native restoration areas.

With your help, we can make Northeast LA a bird friendly community. Mission or Broader Program Description: The nature-based education and community programs at Debs Park are designed to engage children and their families in the outdoor world, and to give them a personal stake in its protection by making environmental issues relevant to their lives.

The Center, which is surrounded by predominately Latino neighborhoods, is a unique gathering place and dynamic focal point for outdoor recreation, environmental education and conservation action.

We are a field program of the National Audubon Society, one of the oldest conservation organizations in the country. We are situated in the largest piece of public open space in the lower Los Angeles River Watershed. The Center is a vital and unique gathering place for the Northeast LA community. Our mission is to inspire people to experience, understand, and care for the local natural world. Join us in and around our native plant nursery where we propagate plants and maintain habitat restoration sites.

Activities include watering, weeding, mulching, berm building and repair, seed collection, processing and sowing, potting, and planting. Learn about native plants and local bird species as you restore important native habitat within more than 17 acres around the center.

Put your hands in some soil and bird while you build habitat! Be sure to bring lots of water, sun protection, and clothes you don't mind getting dirty! Remember to wear closed-toe shoes and dress in layers. Please fill out the downloadable waiver below and bring it with you to your first day. Dedicated volunteers are needed to monitor wild foxes and coyotes in the Palos Verdes Nature Preserve.

No experience required and all training provided. Volunteers are expected to conduct weekly surveys, weather permitting, November through March Mission or Broader Program Description: Volunteers are also empowered to become citizen scientists and participate in a long-term study. If we better understand wildlife activity in our preserves we can achieve many things- evaluating the habitat restoration success in each preserve based on presence and use of native habitat, new findings in animal habits and behavior, and family associations.

The opportunities are boundless. Volunteers will conduct weekly surveys November through March after completing 4 days of required training, which will be conducted on Saturday October 6, 13, 20, and 27th from 8: A five-month commitment is required for an assigned preserve area.

Minimum age 16; close-toed shoes and appropriate outdoor wear required. Rancho Palos Verdes, CA. You will help transplant seedlings and prepare native plants to be planted in restoration sites around the Peninsula to improve wildlife habitat! All volunteers must bring a photo ID driver's license or school ID and must register 48 hours in advance to participate.

Volunteers who do not sign up in advance and receive a confirmation will not be permitted to enter the Navy base. Your vehicle may be subject to search. Please arrive 15 minutes early to account for the security. Volunteers will be working outdoors, so please wear closed-toed shoes, sun protection and be sure to bring drinking water and a snack. Help us get the holiday season started on the right foot! We've got thousands of books that need to be wrapped and less time than you think to do it all!

Child Care Resource Center cultivates child, family, and community wellbeing. Additionally, at our distribution event, children from the community have the opporunity to come to the office to participate in activites and take home a wrapped toy and book. Saturdays leading up to the holidays, volunteers will be wrapping and sorting books and toys that will be distributed amongst the community.

All materials will be provided. Volunteers must be 16 years of year or older and be able to lift up to 30lbs. Volunteers needed to build an enclosure at the Gibbon Conservation Center.

We currently house 40 gibbons, representing five species. One of them, the northern white-cheeked gibbon, is critically endangered.

The mission of the GCC is to promote the conservation, study and care of gibbons through public education and habitat preservation. We educate the public about gibbons, threats to their survival, and the actions the public can take to protect them. Each year, GCC provides educational tours for veterinarians, anthropology students, graduate students, K school children, scout troops and animal lovers of all ages.

We also encourage noninvasive behavioral studies to increase global knowledge and understanding of gibbons, both captive and wild, as well as support ongoing field conservation projects in their countries of origin.

We are building a new home for a pair of gibbon, Truman, and Violet. We will provide water, and if you stay for the afternoon also provide lunch. You will be asked to sign a liability waiver. For 18 year and older. Optional items to consider Additional Details: We will provide a short tour of the facility for all volunteers in the morning, and they will able to learn about our work and these endangered animals. After the tour, we will have a safety orientation and then start working.

A Place Called Home provides a safe, nurturing environment with proven programs in arts, education, and wellness for the young people in South Central Los Angeles to help them improve their economic conditions and develop healthy, fulfilling, and purposeful lives.

Come help A Place Called Home beautify the neighborhood in order to provide a cleaner, healthier environment for our youth! Registration, Tools distribution, Collect tools, Help set up food, Clean Up after event Please remember to fill out a minor volunteer waiver form if minors under 18 are attending projects. We are working to fight hunger and food waste in Southern California, and we'd love to have you join us.

Food Forward fights hunger and prevents food waste by rescuing fresh surplus produce, connecting this abundance with people in need, and inspiring others to do the same. Join the Volunteer Glean Team to help us collect donations of fresh produce from vendors at your local farmers market and box, sort, and weigh the produce. Volunteers should be comfortable carrying boxes of produce that may weigh up to 40 pounds, but don't need to worry about bringing equipment or transporting the food.

Wear comfortable work clothing and close-toed shoes, and bring water to drink. Volunteers must be at least 12 years old, and children under 16 must be accompanied by an adult. If you do not receive a confirmaiton email from lamag lacity. Established in , the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery is the longest running institution in Los Angeles devoted solely to exhibiting art. The gallery focuses on artists from Los Angeles — in particular underrepresented artists whose work may not otherwise have found a platform.

Our exhibitions, educational and public programs aim to inspire conversation about the contemporary issues and ideas that resonate most with the people of Los Angeles. Offering free admission and programs, the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery serves as a welcoming space for everyone, regardless of their income level, personal history, ethnicity, sexual orientation, immigration status, religion or gender identity.

As a volunteer, you will have the opportunity to learn and be a part of the day-to-day operations of a contemporary art gallery. Must be willing to commit to at least one day a week during available gallery days and hours. Accommodations may be provided upon request. To ensure availability, please make your request at least seventy two hours prior to your visit. Become a mentor for a college-bound inner-city high school student. Are you passionate about helping a new generation of high school students achieve their college dreams and fulfill their goals?

If so, become a mentor with Minds Matter - you'll work directly with a student for up to three years and help set them up for success in college and beyond by sharing your hard earned wisdom. You will build a relationship with your student that can truly last a lifetime! Minds Matter is an organization dedicated to preparing motivated and bright students from low-income families to succeed in college.

We work with students beginning in their sophomore year of high school all the way through their graduation from high school, both on academics test prep, writing and on life skills time management, financial literacy, leadership. Each student is paired with two mentors who stay with them through the duration of the program. The vast majority of our students will be the first from their families to attend college, and we strive to give them the tools they need to thrive in college and in life.


Volunteer – Karsh Center

The victors abolished slavery. Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America. By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. Resentment grew among the majority of the population in Latin America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards Iberian-born Peninsulares in the major social and political institutions.

Napoleon 's invasion of Spain in marked a turning point, compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Eventually, these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops by , including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico in the year Later on Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela by This First Mexican Empire was short-lived, and was followed by the creation of a republic in The Brazilian War of Independence , which had already began along other independent movements around the region, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.

As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. During the last phase of the monarchy, an internal political debate was centered on the issue of slavery.

The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in , [44] as a result of the British ' Aberdeen Act , but only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country , was the institution formally abolished. On 15 November , worn out by years of economic stagnation, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasons , the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.

After the independence of many Latin American countries, there was a conflict between the people and the government, much of which can be reduced to the contrasting ideologies between liberalism and conservatism. Liberalists wanted to see a change in the ruling systems, and to move away from monarchs and social classes in order to promote equality. When liberal Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of Mexico in , conservatists relied on their belief that the state had been better off before the new government came into power, so, by comparison, the old government was better in the eyes of the Conservatives.

Following this sentiment, the conservatives pushed to take control of the government, and they succeeded. General Santa Anna was elected president in The following decade, the Mexican—American War —48 caused Mexico to lose a significant amount of territory to the United States. This loss led to a rebellion by the enraged liberal forces against the conservative government. The instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence of the other Central American countries.

In Brazil , rural aristocrats were in conflict with the urban conservatives. Portuguese control over Brazilian ports continued after Brazil's independence. Following the conservative idea that the old government was better, urbanites tended to support conservatism because more opportunities were available to them as a result of the Portuguese presence. He led a military-controlled state.

The people in the military were unhappy with their roles, and the civilians were of the opinion that the military had too much power. After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, New Grenada continued to have conflicts between conservatives and liberals.

These conflicts were each concentrated in particular regions, with conservatives particularly in the southern mountains and the Valley of Cauca. In the mids some leaders in Caracas organized a liberal opposition. Antonio Leocadio Guzman was an active participant and journalist in this movement and gained much popularity among the people of Caracas. In Argentina , the conflict manifested itself as a prolonged civil war between unitarianas i. Between and , the country existed as a confederation , without a head of state, although the federalist governor of Buenos Aires province, Juan Manuel de Rosas , was given the powers of debt payment and international relations and exerted a growing hegemony over the country.

A national constitution was only enacted in , reformed in , and the country reorganized as a federal republic led by a liberal-conservative elite. Losing most of its North American colonies at the end of the 18th century left Great Britain in need of new markets to supply resources in the early 19th century.

The British were able to capture large amounts of precious metals, before a French naval force intervened on behalf of the Spanish King and took down the invading force. However, this caused much turmoil in the area as militia took control of the area from the viceroy. The next year the British attacked once again with a much larger force attempting to reach and conquer Montevideo. As a result, the British were able to take control of the Indian markets.

These improvements included roads and railroads which grew the trades between countries and outside nations such as Great Britain. Between and , Mexico battled through various civil wars between the established Conservative government and the Liberal reformists "Mexico Timeline- Page 2 ".

At this time the French government did not recognize Mexico as an independent entity. However, the constant state of warfare left Mexico with a tremendous amount of debt owed to Spain, England, and France, all of whom funded the Mexican war effort Neeno. However, Napoleon III, with intentions of establishing a French client state to further push his economic interests, pressured the other two powers to withdraw in Greenspan; "French Intervention in Mexico…".

The Battle of Puebla in in particular presented an important turning point in which Ignacio Zaragoza led the Mexican army to victory as they pushed back the French offensive "Timeline of the Mexican Revolution".

The victory came to symbolize Mexico's power and national resolve against foreign occupancy and as a result delayed France's later attack on Mexico City for an entire year Cinco de Mayo Mexican History. The port city of Veracruz, Mexico and France's desire to construct a new canal were of particular interest. Bridging both New World and East Asian trade routes to the Atlantic were key to Napoleon III's economic goals to the mining of precious rocks and the expansion of France's textile industry.

Napoleon's fear of the United States' economic influence over the Pacific trade region, and in turn all New World economic activity, pushed France to intervene in Mexico under the pretense of collecting on Mexico's debt. Eventually France began plans to build the Panama Canal in until when the United States took over and proceeded with its construction and implementation "Read Our Story".

The doctrine warns European nations that the United States will no longer tolerate any new colonization of Latin American countries.

It was originally drafted to meet the present major concerns, but eventually became the precept of U. The doctrine was put into effect in when the U. Some Latin American countries viewed the U. In , he traveled to Nicaragua hoping to overthrow the government and take the land for the United States.

With only the aid of 56 followers, he was able to take over the city of Granada , declaring himself commander of the army and installing Patricio Rivas as a puppet president. However, Rivas's presidency ended when he fled Nicaragua; Walker rigged the following election to ensure that he became the next president.

His presidency did not last long, however, as he was met with much opposition from political groups in Nicaragua and neighbouring countries. On May 1, , Walker was forced by a coalition of Central American armies to surrender himself to a United States Navy officer who repatriated him and his followers.

When Walker subsequently returned to Central America in , he was apprehended by the Honduran authorities and executed. The Mexican—American War , another instance of U. The main cause of the war was the United States' annexation of Texas in and a dispute afterwards about whether the border between Mexico and the United States ended where Mexico claimed, at the Nueces River , or ended where the United States claimed, at the Rio Grande.

However, tensions between the two countries were still high and over the next six years things only got worse with raids along the border and attacks by Native Americans against Mexican citizens. This would become known as the Gadsden Purchase. A critical component of U. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence.

The revelation of the contents outraged the American public and swayed public opinion. President Woodrow Wilson moved to arm American merchant ships in order to defend themselves against German submarines, which had started to attack them. The news helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April of that year.

The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann , on January 16, The message was sent to the German ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. Zimmermann sent the telegram in anticipation of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on 1 February, an act which Germany presumed would lead to war.

The telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the U. As part of the alliance, Germany would assist Mexico in reconquering Texas and the Southwest. Eckardt was instructed to urge Mexico to help broker an alliance between Germany and Japan. Mexico, in the middle of the Mexican Revolution , far weaker militarily, economically and politically than the U.

After World War I, in which Brazil was an ally of the United States , Great Britain , and France , the country realized it needed a more capable army but didn't have the technology to create it. Their main goal was to contain the inner rebellions in Brazil. They tried to assist the army by bringing them up to the European military standard but constant civil missions did not prepare them for World War II.

The immigrants held high positions in government and the armed forces. It was recently found that 9, war criminals escaped to South America, including Croats, Ukrainians, Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. Most, perhaps as many as 5,, went to Argentina; between 1, and 2, are thought to have made it to Brazil; around to 1, to Chile; and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay. He even let German Luftwaffe build secret air forces around Brazil.

This alliance with Germany became Brazil's second best trade alliance behind the United States. Brazil continued to try to remain neutral to the United States and Germany because it was trying to make sure it could continue to be a place of interest for both opposing countries. Brazil attended continental meetings in Buenos Aires, Argentina ; Lima, Peru ; and Havana, Cuba that obligated them to agree to defend any part of the Americas if they were to be attacked. Eventually, Brazil decided to stop trading with Germany once Germany started attacking offshore trading ships resulting in Germany declaring a blockade against the Americas in the Atlantic Ocean.

Furthermore, Germany also ensured that they would be attacking the Americas soon. Roosevelt to discuss how they could retaliate. On January 22, , Brazil officially ended all relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy, becoming a part of the Allies.

Brazil was the only Latin American country to send troops to Europe. Initially, Brazil wanted to only provide resources and shelter for the war to have a chance of gaining a high postwar status but ended up sending 25, men to fight. There was a Nazi influence in certain parts of the region, but Jewish migration from Europe during the war continued. Only a few people recognized or knew about the Holocaust. Even now, unexploded bombs from the second world war that need to be made safe still remain.

The Great Depression caused Latin America to grow at a slow rate, separating it from leading industrial democracies. The two world wars and U. Depression also made Latin American countries favor internal economic development, leading Latin America to adopt the policy of import substitution industrialization.

Brazil began selling automobiles to other countries, and some Latin American countries set up plants to assemble imported parts, letting other countries take advantage of Latin America's low labor costs. Colombia began to export flowers, emeralds and coffee grains and gold, becoming the world's second-leading flower exporter. Economic integration was called for, to attain economies that could compete with the economies of the United States or Europe.

In efforts to help regain global economic strength, the U. Markets that were previously unopposed as a result of the war in Latin America grew stagnant as the rest of the world no longer needed their goods. Large countries like Argentina called for reforms to lessen the disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor, which has been a long problem in Latin America that stunted economic growth. Advances in public health caused an explosion of population growth, making it difficult to provide social services.

Education expanded, and social security systems introduced, but benefits usually went to the middle class, not the poor. As a result, the disparity of wealth increased. Increasing inflation and other factors caused countries to be unwilling to fund social development programs to help the poor. Bureaucratic authoritarianism was practiced in Brazil after , in Argentina, and in Chile under Augusto Pinochet, in a response to harsh economic conditions.

It rested on the conviction that no democracy could take the harsh measures to curb inflation, reassure investors, and quicken economic growth quickly and effectively. Though inflation fell sharply, industrial production dropped with the decline of official protection.

The US sought to stop the spread of communism. In , when Jacobo Arbenz of Guatemala accepted the support of communists and attacked holdings of the United Fruit Company , the US decided to assist Guatemalan counter-revolutionaries in overthrowing Arbenz.

Latin America was more concerned with issues of economic development, while the United States focused on fighting communism, even though the presence of communism was small in Latin America. By , Cuba was afflicted with a corrupt dictatorship under Batista, and Fidel Castro ousted Batista that year and set up the first communist state in the hemisphere.

The United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba, and combined with Castro's expropriation of private enterprises, this was detrimental to the Cuban economy.

The United States put down these rebellions by supporting Latin American countries in their counter-guerrilla operations through the Alliance for Progress launched by President John F. This thrust appeared to be successful. A Marxist, Salvador Allende, became president of Chile in , but was overthrown three years later in a military coup backed by the United States.

Despite civil war, high crime and political instability, most Latin American countries eventually adopted bourgeois liberal democracies while Cuba maintained its socialist system. The Bay of Pigs invasion was an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in , financed by the U. The incident proved to be very embarrassing for the new Kennedy administration. Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress in , to establish economic cooperation between the U.

Instead, the reform failed because of the simplistic theory that guided it and the lack of experienced American experts who could understand Latin American customs. Following the American occupation of Nicaragua in , as part of the Banana Wars, the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster in during the Nicaraguan Revolution.

The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U. The Nicaraguan Revolution Spanish: The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to international attention.

Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in —79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate. The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.

Other Latin countries with governments of the left, including Brazil, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies. Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik , who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies.

The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty. This politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by NAFTA , and elsewhere in the Americas through a series of like agreements. The comprehensive Free Trade Area of the Americas project, however, was rejected by most South American countries at the 4th Summit of the Americas.

In most countries, since the s left-wing political parties have risen to power. In , Mexico announced that it could not meet its foreign debt payment obligations, inaugurating a debt crisis that would "discredit" Latin American economies throughout the decade. A "reversal of development" reigned over Latin America, seen through negative economic growth, declines in industrial production, and thus, falling living standards for the middle and lower classes.

Significantly, as democracy spread across much of Latin America, the realm of government became more inclusive a trend that proved conducive to social movements , the economic ventures remained exclusive to a few elite groups within society.

Neoliberal restructuring consistently redistributed income upward while denying political responsibility to provide social welfare rights, and though development projects took place throughout the region, both inequality and poverty increased.

Both urban and rural populations had serious grievances as a result of the above economic and global trends and have voiced them in mass demonstrations.

Some of the largest and most violent of these have been protests against cuts in urban services, such as the Caracazo in Venezuela and the Argentinazo in Argentina. Rural movements have made diverse demands related to unequal land distribution, displacement at the hands of development projects and dams, environmental and indigenous concerns, neoliberal agricultural restructuring, and insufficient means of livelihood.

These movements have benefited considerably from transnational support from conservationists and INGOs. The s commodities boom caused positive effects for many Latin American economies. Another trend is the rapidly increasing importance of the relations with China. With the end of the commodity boom in the s, economic stagnation or recession resulted in some countries. As a result, the left-wing governments of the Pink Tide lost support. The worst-hit was Venezuela, which is facing severe social and economic upheaval.

The corruption scandal of Odebrecht , a Brazilian conglomerate, has raised allegations of corruption across the region's governments see Operation Car Wash. The bribery ring has become the largest corruption scandal in Latin American history. The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in Latin America. The inhabitants of Latin America are of a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: Various black , Asian and Zambo mixed black and Amerindian minorities are also identified regularly.

Before Hispanics became such a 'noticeable' group in the U. The notion of racial continuum and a separation of race or skin color and ethnicity, on the other hand, is the norm in most of Latin America. In the Spanish and Portuguese empires, racial mixing or miscegenation was the norm and something that the Spanish and Portuguese had grown rather accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans in the Iberian peninsula.

But, demographics may have made this inevitable as well. Thus, for example, of the approximately This contrasts with the U. The fact of the recognition of a racial continuum in Hispanic American sic does not mean that there wasn't discrimination, which there was, or that there wasn't an obsession with race, or 'castes', as they were sometimes called.

In areas with large indigenous Amerindian populations, a racial mixture resulted, which is known in Spanish as mestizos Similarly, when African slaves were brought to the Caribbean region and Brazil, where there was very little indigenous presence left, unions between them and Spanish produced a population of mixed mulatos Spanish colonization was rather different from later English, or British, colonization of North America.

They had different systems of colonization and different methods of subjugation. While the English were primarily interested in grabbing land, the Spanish in addition had a mandate to incorporate the land's inhabitants into their society, something which was achieved by religious conversion and sexual unions which produced a new 'race' of mestizos , a mixture of Europeans and indigenous peoples.

Racial mixing or miscegenation, after all, was something that the Spanish and Portuguese had been accustomed to during the hundreds of years of contact with Arabs and North Africans. Similarly, later on, when African slaves were introduced into the Caribbean basin region, unions between them and Spaniards produced a population of mulatos , who are a majority of the population in the Caribbean islands the Antilles Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico , as well as other areas of the Caribbean region Colombia, Venezuela and parts of the Central American Caribbean coast.

Racially mixed societies arose in most of Spanish and Portuguese America, compounded in varying proportions from European, Indian, and Negro strands. Fairly frequent resort to manumission mitigated the hardships of slavery in those areas; and the Catholic church positively encouraged marriages between white immigrants and Indian women as a remedy for sexual immorality. However, in the southern English colonies and in most of the Caribbean islands, the importation of Negro slaves created a much more sharply polarized biracial society.

Strong race feeling and the servile status of nearly all Negroes interdicted intermarriage, practically if not legally. Such discrimination did not prevent interbreeding; but children of mixed parentage were assigned to the status of their mothers.

Mulattoes and Indian half-breeds were thereby excluded from the white community. In Spanish and, with some differences, Portuguese territories a more elaborate and less oppressive principle of racial discrimination established itself.

The handful of persons who had been born in the homelands claimed topmost social prestige; next came those of purely European descent; while beneath ranged the various racial blends to form a social pyramid whose numerous racial distinctions meant that no one barrier could become as ugly and inpenetrable as that dividing whites from Negroes in the English, Dutch, and French colonies. The demographic makeup of colonial Latin America became more complex when, as the native population declined, the Portuguese, Spanish, and the French in Haiti turned to Africa for labor, as did the British in North America.

The tricontinental heritage that characterizes Latin America, then, is shared by the United States, but even a casual examination reveals that the outcome of the complex interaction of different peoples has varied. While miscegenation among the three races certainly occurred in North America, it appears to have been much less common than in Latin America. Furthermore, offspring of such liaisons were not recognized as belonging to new, distinct racial categories in North America as they were in Latin America.

The terms mestizo or mameluco , mulatto, the general term castas , and dozens of subcategories of racial identity frankly recognized the outcomes of interracial sexual activity in Latin America and established a continuum of race rather than the unrealistic absolute categories of white, black, or Indian as used in the United States. Census Bureau's forms did not allow individuals to list more than one race until Spanish and Portuguese are the predominant languages of Latin America. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil Brazilian Portuguese , the biggest and most populous country in the region.

Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries and territories on the Latin American mainland Spanish language in the Americas , as well as in Cuba , Puerto Rico where it is co-official with English , and the Dominican Republic. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe , Martinique and Guiana , and the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon ; it is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent.

Dutch is the official language in Suriname , Aruba , and the Netherlands Antilles. As Dutch is a Germanic language , these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent e. Mexico is possibly the only country that contains a wider variety of indigenous languages than any Latin American country, but the most spoken language is Nahuatl.

In Peru , Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate.

In Ecuador , while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands.

In Nicaragua , Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito , Sumo , and Rama also hold official status. Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish.

Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean is Haitian Creole , the predominant language of Haiti ; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with Amerindian , English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues.

The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras , Guatemala , Nicaragua and Belize mostly by the Garifuna people a mixed race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. Primarily an Arawakan language , it has influences from Caribbean and European languages.

Archaeologists have deciphered over 15 pre-Columbian distinct writing systems from mesoamerican societies. More than half of these are converts from Roman Catholicism. Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades, the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration.

About 10 million Mexicans live in the United States. For the period —, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela were the only countries with global positive migration rates, in terms of their yearly averages. As a result of the Haiti Earthquake and its social and economic impact, there was a significant migration of Haitians to other Latin American countries. Despite significant progress, education access and school completion remains unequal in Latin America. The region has made great progress in educational coverage; almost all children attend primary school and access to secondary education has increased considerably.

Quality issues such as poor teaching methods, lack of appropriate equipment and overcrowding exist throughout the region. These issues lead to adolescents dropping out of the educational system early. Compared to prior generations, Latin American youth have seen an increase in their levels of education. On average, they have completed two years schooling more than their parents. However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the formal education system.

Among primary school age children ages 6 to 12 , coverage is almost universal; however there is still a need to incorporate 5 million children in the primary education system. These children live mostly in remote areas, are indigenous or Afro-descendants and live in extreme poverty. These percentages are lower among vulnerable population groups: Currently, more than half of low income children or living in rural areas fail to complete nine years of education.

Latin America and the Caribbean have been cited by numerous sources to be the most dangerous regions in the world. Many analysts attribute the reason to why the region has such an alarming crime rate and criminal culture is largely due to social and income inequality within the region, they say that growing social inequality is fueling crime in the region.

Crime and violence prevention and public security are now important issues for governments and citizens in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Homicide rates in Latin America are the highest in the world. From the early s through the mids, homicide rates increased by 50 percent. The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old. Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per , inhabitants as of were: Brazil has more overall homicides than any country in the world, at 50,, accounting for one in 10 globally.

Chile 3, Peru 7, Argentina 7, Uruguay 8 and Paraguay 9. However, there is a substantial gap between Latin America and the western economies. Between and , this gap widened from 0. Many nations such as those in Asia have joined others on a rapid economic growth path, but Latin America has grown at slower pace and its share of world output declined from 9.

Latin America is the region with the highest levels of income inequality in the world. Green cells indicate the best performance in each category while red indicates the lowest. Wealth inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean remains a serious issue despite strong economic growth and improved social indicators over the past decade. Report of the World Social Situation , observed that: The major trade blocs or agreements in the region are the Pacific Alliance and Mercosur.

However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally admitted into the Mercosur pending ratification from the Paraguayan legislature. The president-elect of Ecuador has manifested his intentions of following the same path.

Income from tourism is key to the economy of several Latin American countries. It received by far the largest number of international tourists, with The World Tourism Organization reports the following destinations as the top six tourism earners for the year Latin American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide. It is the product of many diverse influences:.

Due to the impact of Enlightenment ideals after the French revolution, a certain number of Iberian-American countries decriminalized homosexuality after France and French territories in the Americas in Some of the countries that abolished sodomy laws or banned any reference to state interference in consensual adult sexuality in the 19th century were Dominican Republic , Brazil , Peru , Mexico , Paraguay , Argentina , Honduras , Guatemala and El Salvador.

Today gay marriage is legal in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and French overseas departments, as well as in some states of Mexico. Civil unions can be held in Ecuador, Chile and one administrative region of Venezuela. Beyond the rich tradition of indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed the trends of the Italian Masters.

In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early twentieth century, as Latin Americans began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and started to follow their own path. From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement. Painter Frida Kahlo , one of the most famous Mexican artists, painted about her own life and the Mexican culture in a style combining Realism , Symbolism and Surrealism.

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