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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Those decision-making processes are dependent upon the mode of occupation and land-use patterns. These issues are widely discussed in both ethnographic and Paleolithic literature; however, it has rarely been demonstrated technologically in Lower Paleolithic contexts.
In this paper, using the case study of the Late Lower Paleolithic site of Holon in Israel, I address questions regarding the selection of particular curational strat- egies differently employed for various parts of the assemblage. Tool maintenance and the byproducts of such strategies will be described and articulated within the organization of technology at Holon. In addition, I will examine the micro-environmental setting in which these curational behaviors exist.
In Holon, the complexity of the curational organization can be regarded as a chosen tactic, rather than an obligatory response to a deficiency in raw material. Thus, the results of this study exemplify how possible functional needs modify the known techo- typological repertoire. The nature of this interplay has rarely been described within Middle Pleistocene contexts.
Lithic assemblages are the outcome of a long tlement patterning. Another complicating aspect that needs to be considered in regard to the concept of curation is that it is borrowed from the ethnographic realm, with many re- chain of decision-making processes, through which lithic searchers pointing out the problematic nature of analogies tool kits were designed, produced, used, maintained, and across large temporal and contextual distance e.
Those are practical , ; Bleed ; Kuhn ; McCall ; Nelson applications of curational behaviors. Concerning ration as an economizing behavior by hunter-gatherers. Amick ; Baker inherent within the mode by which hunter-gatherers ex- ; Vaquero to name a few. I follow Binford Yet, the question remains regarding what the reasons explain how provisional conditions affect implimentation are for the selection of one mode of economizing behaviors of various technologies Binford His work was fol- over another.
Nelson suggested ; Odell ; Shott to name a few. Some have that technological strategies are not fixed types of behavior; claimed that the term should not be employed due to its they are situational behaviors depending on diverse vari- vagueness in definitions Nash The need to acquire resources in different ration subsumes five different aspects. Those include the locations, to move around the landscape, and many other manufacture of tools effective for a variety of tasks, produc- variables condition the technological strategies employed tion of tools in anticipation of use, moving tools from local- at a particular place and time.
Odell stated that if the els Bleed Such models provide a series of diverging term is to be useful its scope will have to be restricted and and multiplying options to be tested rather than simple PaleoAnthropology Map of the Levant showing the location of main Lower Paleolithic sites, in the box are those of the Coastal Plain of Israel.
Umm El Tlel; 4: Kefar Menachem West; 9: Gesher Benot Yaakov; Bezez, Adlun Cave, and Abri Zumoffen. Anderfsky suggests viewing cu- cated in the central coastal plain of Israel, was excavated ration as a continuum that can be measured or evaluated.
The excavation to the entire components of technological organization, in revealed diverse faunal remains and rich lithic assemblag- order to be able to compare different strategies with the es.
A renewed analysis of the lithic material, undertaken assemblage. Thus, environmental and situational circum- by the author, revealed a group of unique spalls that were stances set the conditions for economizing behaviors. Ac- interpreted as re-sharpened flakes resulting from the main- cordingly, preference for one technological alternative over tenance of scrapers and retouched flakes. Thus, a closer ex- sharpened unifacial tools within the context of the lithic amination of the situations leading to one specific choice organizational system in which they were created.
In ad- may provide interpretive scenarios. The behavioral facet of unifacial the particular maintenance technologies attested to in the tool maintenance will be articulated as part of the overall lithic assemblage. The estimated area of divided into three sub-layers. The upper part is character- excavation varies among the different publications e. The archeo- Chazan The lower part is sandier, with a suggests an area of c.
The uneven thickness this paper. Based on the geological sequence and sedi- quences of the coastal plain of Israel. This area is composed ments, Netser and Chazan reconstruct a back-ridge of alternating layers of unconsolidated sands, cemented marsh or seasonal pond in the vicinity of the site. The faunal assemblage at the site includes cervids al. The cyclic appearance of kurkar and hamra units fallow deer, red deer , bovids aurochs, mountain gazelle, lends itself to a correlation with major geological cycles, wild boar , and straight-tusked elephants Davis and Lister such as those relating to sea level or climatic changes e.
However, it has Horwitz The straight-tusked elephant is known from been suggested that the influence of topography, drain- a variety of environments, ranging from wooded to more age systems, and vegetal cover had a greater impact on open areas Davies and Lister Aurochs, too, were flex- the pedogenic processes manifested in this cyclic sequence ible in their adaptation, as they exploited open parkland, e.
Boars prefer dense thickets, Dan The section delssohn and Yom-Tov The Kurkar found site. Employing luminescence dating methods ferent reports see above. Since sieving was not performed OSL , Porat et al. This layer was geo- density only for artifacts with at least one dimension mea- logically correlated with the archaeological layer found by suring 2cm and over.
Moreover, the vertical distribution Noy. Samples of animal teeth that originated from the old also is unknown only the maximum width. Thus a com- excavations gave similar dates to the one obtained by the parison with other Late Lower Paleolithic open-air sites luminescence methods Porat et al. Khalaily, and the author exam- and selecting as scale the number of artifacts per m2, would ined nine transect test-tranches, running northwest—south- reduce the degree of bias and will help set the site of Holon east and southwest—northeast over an area of c.
No archeological remains Only 2, artifacts larger than 2cm were found at Ho- were found. Trench 3, the closest to the original excava- lon, resulting in c.
Illustrations tions, located c. Figure 2 , Chazan a: The most ancient occupation layers of manganese and oxides nodules; and, Unit 3: The ; Solednko Both the senting a later phase of occupation, 11m2 produced 5, thickness and the lateral exposure of the units indicate past artifacts, bringing the density up to per m2 Malinsky- topographic variations.
The composite view of the sections Buller et al. The much lower numbers 38 items per m2; a total of arti- various appearances of hamra Units 1, 2, 3, 3a and 3b and facts over an area of 21m2: Similar light clay sediments ap- niche, that of a marsh. However, with carbonate nodules 70cm. Thus, it is most probable of gray-brown, mottled clayey sand 30cm thick , yellow- that the stratigraphic sequence in Pit A is incomplete, and brown, mottled clayey sand cm thick , and at 4m below represents only a portion of the time-span during which the surface, Kurkar thickness unknown Porat et al.
This consideration might im- Figure 2. The Holon dates were questioned by Bar-Yo- ey sand and the yellow-brown clayey sand found in Pit A sef and Belmaker , Gopher et al. Composite sections of the trenches: Cores on nodules Cores with hierarchy Levallois cores 6 3.
Those authors claimed that according to our current stones is probably higher, as several cores have signs of knowledge about Late Acheulian dates, the date of Holon previous use as hammerstones see Figure 4: However, the number of cores and cortical ele- probes and trenches, they nevertheless bear archeological ments is relatively low see Table 1. In previous studies of the ed to a marshy environment. The faunal remains also point lithic assemblage of Holon, different terminologies were toward species dependent on a nearby permanent body used for separating cores-on-flake and retouched items of water.
The coastal plain of Israel consists of an environ- Chazan b. However, in the current study the defining ment where the rapid development and disappearance condition for a core-on-flake is a sequence of three remov- of marshes or seasonal ponds create a unique temporary als or more from the same surface Goren-Inbar ; Hov- ecological niche for recent examples see Cohen-Seffer et ers and see discussion within.
This mode of flaking al. The spatial distribution of low-den- made on flakes Tables 2, 3; Figure 3. These three types differ in their preparation, but are The lithic assemblage of Holon see Table 1 consists of similar in all other categories, i. Nodules used as cores exhibit two ing during the excavation Chazan b, c. All stages of flake production are definitions, see Malinsky-Buller et al.
Pebbles used as raw appear in similar quantities. Most of those with hierarchy material for knapping were most probably derived from exhibit a non-Levalloisian conception of knapping Table 2; the nearby paleo-Ayalon stream. Fifty-eight unmodified see Table 4; Figure 4. The handax- were found at the site.
Seven additional pebbles were used es were made mainly on rounded pebbles, with only one as hammerstones, although the real number of hammer- handaxe made on a flake. Thickness Breadth of Depth of length width striking striking platform platform average Thin- debitage see Table 3. The toolkit contains three main com- ning flakes are smaller in comparison to the CMP. On the one hand, the retouched flakes classified tion. The size of the thinning flakes can be explained as a according to a regular and continuous retouch following result of transport of handaxes over the landscape.
Accord- the definition suggested by Goren-Inbar On the other hand, were performed off-site, the final stages of their fashioning side-scrapers as well composite tools demonstrate a high were executed on-site. A similar scenario was suggested for intensity of retouch./p>
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