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THE author desires to express appreciation for the kindness of many people who have cooperated in preparing this history. In particular, gratitude is due: Sidvin Frank Tucker, Mr.

Alice Rowe Snow, Rev. Hagman, Miss Dorothy L. Mary Alice Clark, Mr. It has long been a matter of regret by our citizens that the historic events credited to our Town have never been chronicled and published.

Clark, has long been recognized as outstanding, particularly in the field of historical writings. A former resident of our Town, he has devoted a great deal of time in intensive research necessary to the production of a work of this importance. Planning many events to celebrate the th Anniversary of the granting of the Charter to our Town, the Committee feels that the publishing of this volume will be the most important. Other events scheduled will pass on and become but memories, but the History will be a permanent memento of the Centennial celebration of our fine New England community.

This is so in point of size alone. On the town's one thousand and seventy-five acres some eighteen thousand people live -- thus making the little town by the sea one of the more important of the State. Winthrop, is a beautiful town. Its location between the Atlantic Ocean on the East and Boston Harbor on the West is alone enough to establish the fact.

Even more, Winthrop is a town of gentle hills which, although now built over with about 4, houses, gives almost every window a wide prospect over miles of ocean, marsh and a city just far enough away to be remote and yet near enough to be conveniently reached within a half-hour or so. Probably one of the greatest factors concerned in the production of Winthrop's charms are the many elms and maples lining her 36 miles of streets and shading most of her homes and all her public buildings.

There are wealthier towns in the Commonwealth than Winthrop but few more financially fortunate. By many years of self-sacrificing service by public-spirited citizens who have served the town largely without pay, the town is practically without debt; nearly all the streets are paved and have sidewalks while the municipal establishments, schools, library, town hall, fire houses and all the rest are paid for in full. Winthrop is known as a town of homes. This is true because there is practically no industry in the town at all.

The town is emptied of mornings by perhaps ten thousand men and women who go into Boston to their various occupations. At evening, they return home. This is a common condition of many of the suburbs around Boston and certain uncomplimentary critics have described these suburbs of Boston as being mere bedrooms for the City.

However true this may be, Winthrop does maintain its own spirit and integrity. As it is a pleasure to live in Winthrop, so is it a distinction. This is the result of the town's many years of 3. This is remarkable, because Winthrop has a long, long history. Actually, this town observes its centennial this year.

That is so because it became legally a separate town in , when it was parted from the present City of Revere. Previously, Revere and Winthrop had been a part of the present City of Chelsea -- just as Chelsea and Revere and Winthrop had been a part of the original settlement of Boston. That takes the history back to but this is merely the white occupation of this area. The first whites who visited Boston Bay of demonstrable certainty were hardy fishermen from Britain, France and Portugal.

These doughty seamen came here to catch the great cod which then flourished in great numbers. In tiny vessels, hardly more than present-day yachts, they sailed westward in the Spring, landed a few men on shore, in such bays as Boston Harbor and built huts.

Then, when the Fall storms came, the fishermen sailed home with their fish and furs. This business' certainly flourished during the latter part of the fifteen hundreds and these fishermen were often on hand to welcome the "discoverers and explorers" when they arrived somewhat later. There is a reasonably good probability that there were white men here even before the fishermen.

These were, of course, the Vikings or Norsemen who did sail along the Nova Scotia and New England coasts in and about the year 1, The Norse sagas describe settlements made somewhere along shore, tell of the battles with the Indians and while they cannot tell of the gradual extinction of the colonies, the tragic fate of these first settlers in America is grimly for shadowed in the poems. There is some evidence that Irish explorers may have visited New England also at about the same era.

There are opinions, of course, but no definite proof has been found -- nor does it seem likely that such will ever appear. No one has ever found proof that the Norse ever visited Boston Harbor -- but it seems unlikely that the little dragon ships of the Vikings, coasting down from Nova Scotia, could have missed Boston Harbor as they explored on to the south. Thus it is probable that the Norsemen must have at least visited Winthrop's beaches and found refreshment and rest in our forests while they enjoyed the abundance of game and sea-food then blessing this region.

Before the white men, Winthrop was, of course, home to Indians. Indeed, the future town, with its wealth of fish, clams and lobsters, was a favorite resort in the summer for many Indians who apparently were seated in the hills back from the shore during the winters.

There is some evidence of importance that the tribesmen the Puritans found here, were not here very long, being comparatively newcomers. Lacking a written language, indeed any language which would have made accurate history possible, the story of the Indians can only be pieced together out of legends and some archeological material.

This last is very scanty, too, for the Indians, being very primitive people, had little of permanent importance to leave behind when exterminated by the whites. It is likely that the Indians here in were interlopers. They seem to have been fierce and warlike people who drove up from the south-west and forced the then holders of this area northward along the shore.

It is considered probable that the evicted Indians may be the present day Esquimaux, or at least have been absorbed into the Arctic tribes. And there is some further evidence that even the exiled people were not the original inhabitants of this area, for some recent archeological studies have given evidence of the presence of a people of great antiquity.

Because these people dyed their skeletons before burial with a red pigment, they are known as the Red Paint People. Almost nothing is known of them. Winthrop, when the first white people came here, was a place of striking beauty.

This is made clear in the accounts of those first on the scene. Unfortunately, there were few Puritans sufficiently interested to write in any detail of the geography - or indeed of anything save the formal, legal records. Men were commonly not educated in such facilities in those days, articulateness was not a characteristic of the early 17th century.

Even so, the men who could write were much more concerned with winning homes and establishing a commonwealth. They were too busy to write, even if they could have done so. The important things about these descriptions is not so much that they were mere off-hand comments, fragments of a few sentences included in writing of much graver material, as that one and all they were markedly enthusiastic.

For example, the Puritans wrote home from Boston in glowing terms. So pleasant a scene here they had as did much refresh them; and there came a smell off the shore like the smell of a garden.

Imagine a weary, endlessly-long tossing upon the ocean, cramped and confined, ill and sick of the horrible food which alone was possible on long voyages in those days. And then to 5. Probably at morning and again at evening, deer would come out of the forest and stand on the beach to see what manner of creature was disturbing their peace.

Then to land on the beach, to walk on solid ground once again and to feast on fresh meat and to enjoy the strange but delicious flesh of lobsters -- and even to have a plate of steamed clams -- not to mention great steaks of familiar fish such as cod.

Of these fish and these sea-foods, a colonist, Francis Higginson, wrote, "The abundance of sea-food are sic almost beyond believeing and sure I should scarce have believed it, except I had seen it with mine own eyes. I saw great store of whales and grampusses and such abundance of mackerels that it would astonish one to behold, likewise codfish in abundance on the coast, and in their season are plentifully taken. Of this fish, our fishers take many hundreds together, which I have seen lying on the shore to my admiration; yea, their nets ordinarily take more than they are able to haul to land, and for want of boats and men they are constrained to let many go after they have taken them, and yet sometimes they fill two boats at a time with them.

For my own part, I was soon cloyed with them, they were so great and fat, and lucious. I have seen some lobsters that weighed sixteen pounds; but others have, divers times, seen great lobsters as have weighed twenty-five pounds, as they assure me. Also here is abundance of herring, turbot, sturgeon, cusks, haddocks, mullets, eels, crabs, mussels and oysters.

Besides there is probability that the country is of excellent temper for the making of salt; for since our coming, the fishermen have brought home very good salt, which they found candied, by standing of sea-water and the heat of the sun, upon a rock by the sea-shore; and in divers salt marshes that some have gone through, they have found some salt in some places crushing under their feet and cleaving to their shoes.

Thirtie, fortie, fiftie, sixtie, are ordinarie here; yea, Joseph's increase in Egypt is outstript here with us. Our planters have more than a hundred fold this yere What will you say of two hundred fold and upwards?

Our Governor hath store of green pease in his garden, as good as ever I eat in England. Thecountrie aboundeth naturally with store of roots of great varietie Here are store of pomions squash , cowcumbers and other things the nature of which I know not Excellent vines are here, up and down the woods. Our governor John Winthrop hath already planted a vineyard with great hope of increase. Also mulberries, hurtleberries, and hawes of whitethorn filberts, walnuts, smallnuts, near as good as our cherries in England; they grow in plentie here.

Higginson's botany and horticulture may be slightly awry but there can be no mistaking the fact that the settlers found Boston a fair and pleasant land and one which was fruitful in the bargain.

Another excerpt, from an unknown writer, has this to say along the same line: This much I can affirm in general, that I never came to a more goodly country in my life. Everything that is here eyther sowne or planteth, prospereth far better than in Old England. Vines doe grow here plentifully laden with the biggest grapes that ever I saw; some I have seen foure inches about One of the better sources of information about the early days of Boston and vicinity is William Wood's New England Prospect.

Wood spent some four years in this neighborhood and published his book in at London. It is one of the best sources of information about the Massachusetts Bay Colony, if for no other reason, it being the only thing of its kind. In Wood's book appears a fair map of this area on which for the first time Winthrop's former name of Pullin Point is shown, together with 7.

Wood had this to say, in part, about his new home. Speaking of strawberries, he alleged, the colonists "may gather halfe a bushell in a forenoone Yet another interesting account of colonial days is that of John Josselyn, published in In his book New England Rarities, which is hardly noteworthy for its restraint, John has much to say about apples and cider; for example," It was affirmed by one Mr.

Wolcutt a magistrate established in Connecticut after leaving Boston that he made five hundred hogsheads of syder out of his own Orchard in One year.

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This may seem strange, because Boston in was the largest and most prosperous city in the colonies. The reason is that Winthrop, and to a minor degree less, Chelsea and Revere, were still farming communities -- actually one town.

In the early part of the 19th Century, Chelsea had grown and, as a separate town had its center with a town hall and a church at what is now Revere Center.

A bridge was built across the Charles between Charlestown and Boston in -- before that the only way to leave Boston by land was out Roxbury Neck. Then when the Boston-Salem turnpike was built in , a bridge was built over the Mystic between Charlestown and Chelsea. These conveniences to travel north and east resulted in a great development for Revere and Chelsea but Winthrop, being way out farther to the east was still aside from the stream of travel and commerce and hence drowsed along until almost the end of the 19th century as a peaceful farming community.

The growth of Chelsea and Revere was so great that in , Chelsea consented to Revere splitting away. Winthrop, of course went with Revere, a sort of tail to the dog. At mid-century, just a hundred years ago, the third great geographical change was accomplished, Winthrop people, who had by then increased in number, began to chafe under the rule of Revere.

Revere, for its part, was not at all concerned with the square mile of marsh and drumlins which was Winthrop and so, in , Winthrop was established as the present town -- a separation which recent years have proved to be an excellent thing. Winthrop at that time was still primarily agricultural. From time to time there had been attempts to establish industry From most points of view this has proved to be good -- for it has prevented the town from suffering the various evils and discomforts of industrial concentration.

Economically, of course, there are disadvantages but on the whole Winthrop is very fortunate to be a town of homes alone. Being so near Boston, Winthrop could not long continue to remain agricultural.

Land increased in value to a point where it could not be profitably farmed. Outside pressure became so great that an opportunity developed for the division of the farms, and the subdivisions of the divisions so that almost every square foot of land, town property and marshes aside, became a house lot.

There are few towns which are so thoroughly well built up as Winthrop is today -- just as there is no area of comparable charm so easily accessible to Boston.

The development of Winthrop out of farms to homes was made possible, by the establishment of transportation. Steamers plied for a time between the town and the city, but primarily it was the railroad which made the town's metamorphosis directly possible. Today the rails have been torn up and private cars and the bus line, feeding the Rapid Transit system at Orient Heights carry the load.

Few communities are so thoroughly emptied of mornings and so filled up again at night in two brief peak loads as is Winthrop. But transportation is a story for a subsequent chapter. The Indian actually was very far from a noble savage. Judged by white standards, the redskin was mean, cruel, dirty and -- in short, vermin.

The old saying, "The only good Indian is a dead Indian" was a judgment based upon experience. There can be no doubt that, according to their own lights, the Indians were justified in attempting to retaliate upon the white settlers. Any man worth his salt would fight by whatever means possible to save his home, his family and himself from brutalization and exile. No critic of the Indian, however bitter, would deny that the Indian was a first-class fighting man. The trouble was that the Indian culture was so different from the European that the two could not exist side by side.

On one ground alone, economic, this is abundantly clear. The Indians were primarily hunters. To subsist as such, a hunting culture requires comparatively vast areas of forest and water. The European culture was basically agricultural; a few acres would support a person.

Thus New England could support a multitude more Englishmen than it could Indians. Now, to practice agriculture, it is necessary to destroy the forest cover, to allow the sun to strike in upon the soil. A hunting culture requires the forest be undisturbed. So -- conflict was inevitable and, given the superior weapons and social organization of the English, the result was inevitable.

The Indian had to go. The manner of going can be criticised as having been far too brutal and bloody but sentimentalists of the 20th Century do not realize what the handful of whites faced. There they were, a few men, women and children clutching grimly to a hand-hold along shore, practically safe only under the guns of their ships. Home and safety was not as now, perhaps 14 hours' flight away, but weeks and weeks of weary and uncertain voyaging over perilous seas in tiny ships.

The settlers had to depend upon themselves. It is true they had muskets against the Indian bow and arrow and tomahawk-and scalping It is true that every able-bodied man and boy was a member of the militia, practically ex officio.

It is true that the Indians could not withstand an attack by a body of militia. But, the Indian traditionally followed a policy of strike and run. No one knew when at dawn, they would wake, if they did, to the sound of the warwhoop with their homes afire over their heads. So, the settlers were compelled to fight the Indians Indian fashion. They had to match savagery with even more brutal savagery.

The only thing the Indian feared, and thus respected, was strength greater than he possessed. In other words, the Indian had to be shown it was not good business to kill a white man, woman or child. The showing consisted of the settlers killing Indian men, women and children. When the Great and General Court of Massachusetts put a bounty on Indian scalps just as it did on wolves and wildcats, it was not mere savagery but sober business.

The Indians killed for scalps; the settlers must be encouraged to do likewise. The early history of New England is bloody and bitter with its series of Indian wars -- with the Indians eventually being instigated and led by first the French and then the British. It is one of the ugliest chapters in human history -- but it must be read in light of the fact that conditions, social, religious, economic and moral, have changed greatly since the last warwhoop died away and the Indians were herded into reservations.

In passing, it may be of interest to know that the Indians of New England, after being reduced to a mere fragment, are today increasing in numbers again. The occupation of this area by humans before Boston was settled is obscure. Apparently, the original inhabitants, so far as is known, were the so-called Red Paint People. Graves have been found in Maine with the skeletons dyed red and with pots of red pigment buried close beside. Evidently, the Red Paint People were pushed out or exterminated by a nation of small-statured and swarthy aborigines who occupied at least all of northeastern America.

How long they were here, where they came from -- and all the rest, is a matter of mere legend. Very likely, the small, dark people were in turn pushed out, by the familiar Indian of recorded history. These Indians, the red-skins, may have migrated out of Asia long, long ago, crossing into Alaska via the Bering Straits. Slowly these Indians made their way down the Pacific Coast, going southward until they either came into conflict with the tribes of Mexico, possibly the Mayas and the Incas, or their predecessors.

Anyhow, the tide of red Indians turned left and came eastward across the Rockies Finally, a portion of them occupied the Northeast, pushing out the small, dark people mentioned.

The exiles seem to have gone north and east and it is possible that they are today either the Esquimaux or else their blood runs in Esquimaux veins. The red Indians in the North East were members of what is called the Algonquian Nation -- an immense but very loose con-federation of tribes. Practically, the only reason for such a nation being established by scholars is that the tribes so united spoke a language with a common or Algonquian stock.

For greater concern, the Eastern Indians were so-called forest Indians which is to say their culture, being dependent upon the forest which covered their holdings, was very different from the culture of the Indians of the Great Plains, where trees were almost unknown, where the staff of life was buffalo. It is these Plains Indians, such as the Sioux, proud, fierce, eagle-nosed, and very accomplished fighters, that set the standard of the popular idea of the Indian.

Eastern or woods Indians did not have horses to ride, nor did they wear the picturesque war bonnet. They were extinguished with comparative ease while the Sioux, for example, stood off the Army of the United States, such of it as was employed, for more than a generation. The Indians of New England were sharply divided into various tribes -- although this word is actually a very loose term. The white settlers from England had a habit of naming the Indians according to the locality in which they lived, being particularly fond of naming a "tribe" after a river -- as the Kennebecs and the Penobscots in Maine.

The French settlers also bestowed tribal names and the result was that historians are somewhat confused, since often the same group of Indians were given two or even more names. Thus the Indians who lived in Winthrop and vicinity have not been positively identified as to their tribe. There is a general understanding that they were members of the Massachusetts tribe but that is indefinite. Perhaps, as some authorities assert, the Indians of Metropolitan Boston were Pawtuckets.

The point is unimportant. The serious point is that these Indians when the Puritans came were in a sorry condition. This was a very. The old Norse sagas speak of the fighting quality and the strength and numbers of the Indians. Armed with swords, the Vikings, who were the best fighting men of Europe at the time, were no match for the savages -- who probably overwhelmed the Norsemen by sheer force of numbers and thus extinguished the colonies, or colony. Certainly, after the experience of the Vikings, Europeans had a healthy respect for the red men.

No one knows how many Indians lived in and around Boston in the early days. Fishermen had frequented the coast, including Boston Bay, for many years prior to "discovery" and settlement. These traded with the Indians somewhat and, on the whole maintained a friendly relationship -- since the fishermen did not try to settle permanently.

From reports of these rough and ready spirits, strange tales found their way into the British mind. The woods of New England were imagined to be filled with wild beasts as horrid as anything a modern geologist can imagine while the Indians were counted as being "numberless as the leaves upon the trees. Louis, and claimed the area for the King of France. Des Monts asserted that Boston was the center of a vast Indian population, one numbering between , and , souls.

There may have been that many Indians then in all New England, although that too is very doubtful. The country simply would not support that many humans in a hunting culture. The description Des Monts gives of the Indians at Boston is interesting -- if he was a poor census taker. He said that around about the harbor some thirty thousand fighting men were busy carrying fire and massacre into the villages of neighboring tribes, while they stood ready, to use his terms, to repel any attempt at settlement.

The Indians, he reported lived in villages of bark houses, each large enough to shelter 30 or 40 persons, with the entire village fortified by a stout palisade of logs. These logs, poles is probably the better term, for the Indians did not have the tools to handle heavy timbers, were in turn surrounded by deep ditches.

Entrance into the village was by a single plank log is probably the better word laid across the ditch and giving into a very narrow gate. Thus each village was very easily defended, against the stone-age weapons of the Indians themselves In actual combat with the settlers later, the villages were of course death traps, for just as they kept other Indians out so they kept the inhabitants caged.

The white militia, as in King Philip's War, simply surrounded the village stealthily and then, at a signal, discharged their muskets into the village, setting it ablaze. Any Indian trying to escape was shot down and so the entire village was wiped out, men, women, children and dogs. Of the Islands in the harbor, Des Monts speaks particularly, saying that they were occupied by Indian villages surrounded by fields of corn, beans, squash pumpkins and tobacco.

So he turned north, after visiting Cape Cod, and settled the French in Acadia. Thus Indian curiosity over a white man's ship prevented the French taking possession of New England. Captain John Smith, the great English adventurer, when he visited New England in , had this to report to his backers of Boston and vicinity. We found the people in these parts kindly but in their fury no less valiant. A war party attacked the ship and killed the crew with the exception of four men who were taken as wild animals might be captured.

Under careful guard, the unlucky Frenchmen were taken from one Indian village to the next and exhibited to the curiosity of the savages. Undoubtedly, the squaws were not kind. The fate of the slaves is not known; likely enough it was not merciful for the four were seized in retaliation for a raid by a Captain Hunt in Hunt seized about twenty Indians and took them to Spain where he sold them into slavery.

Had John Winthrop, and the Pilgrims at Plymouth for that matter, attempted settlement during these years, the fate of the two first towns might have been very different. It seems unlikely the proud and able Indians of eastern Massachusetts would have allowed white men to seize their land and level their forests. However, about or , a fierce pestilence swept through the Indian villages.

Possibly it was smallpox; probably it was a European disease which was communicated to the Indians by some fisherman or sailor. In any event, the Indians were very nearly wiped out of existence; only an impotent handful remaining.

And these few suffered further destruction at the hands of a very fierce tribe from Maine, the Tarrantines. The Tarrantines and the Massachusetts tribe were traditional enemies. For many years, the Massachusetts had been strong enough not only to hold the Maine Indians at arm's length but also had inflicted serious harm by almost annual raids.

When the Tarrantines learned of the pestilence, they swept down and completed the ruin of the once very powerful Indians, particularly those along the coast of Massachusetts. Probably not three hundred fighting Winthrop was certainly one of the choice items of Indian real estate but there is no knowledge of any particular activity here.

In fact, there never was any Indian trouble within the limits of the town. Certainly Indians lived here and probably in the Summer months, this was an Indian summer resort for members of friendly Indian groups. Indians commonly established two residences. During the warm months, they resorted to the sea shore, where they lived on fish and clams and lobsters.

In the Fall, they returned inland, harvested the crops which they had planted in the Spring and then settled down deep in the forest to live the cold, starving months away with the help of wild game.

When Spring returned, they planted their gardens and left once more for the seashore. Probably Winthrop was one such resort although there were unquestionably Indians in permanent residence here -- not very many, because there was not sufficient forest area to support a large village. The Winthrop Indians at about the time of the pestilence were under the chieftainship of Nanepashemet variously spelled. He probably ruled from a tribal village in Lynn or Saugus but after the Tarrantine attack had completed what the pestilence began, this chief moved his headquarters inland and erected a fortified village on the banks of the Mystic just north and west of the present Medford Square.

This was tidal area then, for the lock at the Square had not been built -- of course. Here the chief was attacked by raiding Tarrantines in , and although he and his men fought valiantly, they were all slaughtered.

The widow more or less retired to Salem and left the government of the stricken tribe to her three sons. Winthrop's Indians came at first under the jurisdiction of John, who was a kindly man and admired the English. He wore English clothes and was apparently converted to Christianity.

James, who took over after John's death, was much less friendly to the settlers. It is reported, although no confirmation can be found, that James led an attack upon Samuel Maverick's farm in Chelsea. He was the first settler in Winnisimmet, preceding the Puritans. Maverick was a stalwart soul and he repulsed the Indians so fiercely that there was never again any trouble with the Indians in this area. That may be the reason This one runs that the Indians here were attacked by an epidemic of smallpox in The victims were abandoned by their own people but the white settlers moved in and nursed the Indians at the risk of their own lives.

Despite stories to the contrary, Indians do feel gratitude and did exhibit that virtue. Hence this may explain why there never was any trouble here. Of course, Boston was too big for an Indian attack and Winthrop was under the shadow of the big town. Also, there were very few Indians left hereabouts when serious Indian troubles came.

Anyhow, James did not like the English at all, feeling that they would complete the ruin of the Massachusetts tribe that the pestilence and the Tarrantines had so well begun. His animosity failed to amount to anything, however, for he died very soon. The third brother, Sagamore George, then took over the reins of Indian government and he at once began to make trouble for the settlers at Rumney Marsh and Pullin Point.

Being comparatively well educated, he substituted the courts for the tomahawk and for some ten years he kept the settlers in an anxious state. George contended the settlers held their land by illegal title. He brought suit after suit in the inferior courts and filed petition after petition with the General Court. These were all eventually dismissed but at the time the legality of the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony itself was in question in Parliament.

Undoubtedly, the English kings had been careless with their gifts and charters-but then no one had the least idea of the extent of America. After all, gifts and charters were just words on paper concerned with a miserable wilderness three thousand miles overseas. So the settlers at Pullin Point, just in case, gave in to Sagamore George for the sake of security and purchased their lands from him, for trifles, on June 4, Soon afterwards, the suit was dismissed in the British courts and the validity of the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter affirmed.

So the Pullin Point settlers once again received new titles to their lands from the colony and so rested secure. There is eyebrow lifting over the small payments the whites gave the Indians for the lands. However, there is no evidence that the settlers dealt unfairly, in this particular at least, with the Indians. The Indians were satisfied with what they accepted; they had to be, for under the General Court all men, red or white, were treated with impartiality. Any Indian could recover property unjustly held by a settler.

It must be remembered too that the Indians were the object of official as well as much individual and private concern and Indeed, it was one of the objects of Boston to Christianize the Indians.

The bringing of the Gospel to the Indians was as earnestly projected as were the missionary labors of the Catholic Church in Spanish dominions to the south. Methods differed between Mexico. It was duty to bring the word of God to the heathen and the Puritans did what they could.

However, the Boston Indians were different in character from the limp and indifferent Indians of Mexico and Peru. The New England savage was a brave and stalwart person who would rather fight than do most anything else. They were stubborn and conversion proceeded slowly indeed. Aside from the character of the Indians, the Puritans faced an impossible task. Just for an example, Christianization meant adopting the white man's ethics.

This meant work, hard work and regular work, for idleness was a very grave Puritan sin. The Indian would labor long and hard when hunting or fishing. Then he rested, between feasts and games and dances. Now and then he took time off to enjoy a little fighting with an enemy tribe.

It was their way of life. Regular employment was utterly abhorrent. The Indian, once he was crushed into impotence, was finally allowed more or less officially to go his own way.

The fear and hatred of the Indian still persisted, however, and in King Philip's war -- the final attempt of the Indians to push the whites back into the sea -- it was thought advisable to herd the Indians together in a safe place so there would be no depredations, however friendly and spiritless the Boston Indians professed to be.

So, in November of , the General Court established what amounted to a concentration camp on Deer Island. Here several hundred Indians were unceremoniously confined. Neither food nor fuel was provided. For two years the Indians were thus kept out of harm's way, at the cost of their great privation and downright suffering.

It is not a pleasant picture. During the years of joint habitation by whites and reds, no settler ever thought of making any record or preserving any tools and materials of the Indian. They were merely tolerated and soon were liquidated -- those left alive joining larger villages to the north and west.

Then for many years the Indians were completely forgotten. During the past years, particularly during the past two decades, under the inspiration of Sidvin Frank Tucker, custodian of the Town Museum in the Public Library, some amount of Indian relics have been collected and preserved. One of the outstanding "finds" was made in when, under the direction of Channing Howard, town engineer for many years, Indian graves were uncovered while grading was in progress for the construction of the Boston, Revere-Beach and Lynn Railroad.

Harry Whorf, then a boy recently brought to Winthrop by his family, was intensely interested, and joined Mr. Howard in photographing the graves' contents. These consisted of some ten graves, each about three feet deep. In addition to the skeletons of men, women and children, some pottery, arrowheads, stone tools and the like were preserved.

One Indian did not die in his bed for an arrowhead was found imbedded in his spine. The materials were turned over to the Peabody Museum at Harvard for preservation. Sometime later another skeleton was found when the foundation was dug for the Edward B. Newton School on Pauline Street. Of interest is also the fact that an old deed gives as one boundary the old Indian fort, which was about where the present Baptist Church is located. This was not a fort at all in the modern sense; probably being nothing more than a wooden palisade with, perhaps, a ditch on the outside.

Just how the Indians in Winthrop lived must be surmised since there is no record. However, it is probable that they lived like the other Massachusetts Indians in nearby areas. In appearance, the Massachusetts Indians were of "decent aspect. The bust of an Indian used by the National Shawmut Bank of Boston is considered a reasonably good, although idealized, portrait of a local Indian. The Indian women were hardly handsome, by European standards, but "reasonably attractive.

Boys wore their hair long until manhood and then cut it off variously, leaving the scalp-lock. It is likely that the shape of the "hair cut" was something of a tribal badge so that one scalp could be distinguished from another. Both men and women were fond of decorating themselves in various ways. In the green of the Summer forest and the black and white of Winter, color was highly prized by these primitives.

While some of the warriors chose to burn patterns Much of this painting was done on the face. Men excelled at this art and any really serious decoration was their masculine prerogative. The various reds and blacks and yellows as well as the patterns used, had religious, military and social significance.

Black was reserved for war while red was more or less social. Whites, blues and yellows were also used. Women used black for mourning alone. To make themselves attractive, they commonly used blue upon their cheeks, instead of the rouge our women use. Clothing ran through a wide latitude; it was chiefly a matter of the weather.

In Summer, and indoors when the huts were warm enough, commonly nothing at all was worn. Usually, however, both men and women seem to have considered a sort of breech garment as the foundation of their apparel.

These "pants" were made of various animal materials, such as buckskin, tanned until soft and pliable. Very frequently, the skins of various wild animals were employed, either shaved of fur or with the fur left in place.

When going into the Woods, as hunting, the men wore leather leggings to protect their shins. These, as most tanned garments, were often painted with more or less geometrical designs in blue and red and yellow. On their feet, men and women usually wore the Indian moccasin.

The style of these varied from tribe to tribe. In warm weather the moccasins were low-cut but in the Winter they were higher, something like the snow-pacs familiar in Canada today. When snows were deep, leggings were worn by both men and women, often being held in place by leather straps which fastened upwards to the bottom of the breech clout like garters.

This strapping was peculiarly a woman's attire, however; men usually scorning such limitation of freedom of action. We hear much about buckskin shirts.

Apparently the Indians did not use them until they came to copy the shirts worn by the settlers. Instead, when the weather was cold, the Indians simply draped the upper part of their bodies in a robe-like wrap made of fur.

These robes hung about the shoulders and were belted in at the waist. For outdoor wear, they were short enough to reach to the knees but indoors the robes were long enough to actually trail upon the ground. Raccoon skins were highly prized for these robes and wild-cat was also popular.

Only wealthy Indians could afford such garments. Usually the robes were of deerskin or moosehide, tanned to a remarkable whiteness which afforded a good background for the ornamental Indian paintings. The robes were not stitched on the right side at all and only a little on the left. Thus the right In coldest weather, robe was piled on robe. The Indians, inured to even New England weather from birth, were doubtless comfortable enough -- for the settlers often remarked that they would appear nearly naked in chilly weather and yet be thoroughly warm.

Probably the Indians were like birds and animals; they obtained body heat by eating heavily in cold weather and more lightly when the season was warm. However, the Indians, like all wild creatures, seldom stinted themselves.

They ate what there was when it was available. Then they would sleep until hunger woke them again. Then they would gorge themselves and sleep. This process continued until war or the need for obtaining more food spurred them into activity. The settlers often referred to the Indians as dirty. This was only the careless use of a derogatory adjective, for the Indians as a whole were cleaner about their person than the average settler. They bathed freely and frequently and brushed their teeth mornings with a "brush" made by chewing the end of a twig until it was frayed.

The men did not shave. Indian men do not have heavy beards, like white men, to begin with, and what hairs did sprout were carefully, if painfully, plucked out one by one. The hair of the heads of women men wore just a scalp lock was worn long and was naturally black, thick and coarse in texture. This hair was frequently dressed with animal fat to make it glossy like the plumage of a crow.

Contrary to the usual idea, these Massachusetts Indians did not live in tepees or wigwams. Instead they lived in very unromantic huts. These were of two kinds -- the long house and the round house. The long house, usually the Winter abode, was rectangular in shape and was about 25 feet in width and as long as was necessary to accommodate the several families who built it and shared it. Some may have been as much as feet in length. The idea of these community dwellings was that since each family maintained a fire, the long house, for all its flimsy construction, was usually fairly warm.

These were the original American tenements, although horizontal instead of vertical. Sanitary arrangements were very simple; the whole outdoors was just outside. These long houses were built by setting up parallel walls of frame-work of poles lashed together.

The roof united the walls and held them firmly in place, being built of limber poles bent in an arch so as to give a round arch form to the cross-section. The framework was covered not with skins but with Birch was the best, since it peeled off easily in great sheets. The bark, cut into convenient squares, was dried under pressure and then sewn to the framework with leather thongs.

Round houses, which were for Summer use as a rule, were much smaller, since they were usually used by individual families or, at the most, two or three closely related families, such as married children come home to live with the old folks. These round houses were hemispherical, being made by setting a circle of limber poles in the ground and then bending them inwards to the center where they were lashed together.

Bark was used to sheathe them often although mats woven of marsh grass and reeds were also employed. These same mats were sometimes used indoors in Winter as floor coverings at the point where people sat or slept -- usually the same place.

The round houses had two doors; usually one to the south-west and one to the north-east. Thus in warm weather, the prevailing south-west wind could blow right through. When the weather was foul, the doors could be closed.

Long houses usually had as many doors as there were families living inside -- and each family used its own door. These doors were just holes in the walls which were covered by a curtain of skins. In the Summer, the Indians kept all fires outside, for they were used only for cooking.

In the Winters, in the long houses, each family had its own fire. A hearth was made by building a low platform of stones in the middle of the family's space. There was a hole directly above in the roof and some of the smoke found its way out -- eventually. The rising current of warm air effectually kept rain and snow out of these holes. The government of the Indians was very simple and very strict -- violation of the code was punished by fines of furs or by the imposition of servitude to the injured person for a fitting period of time.

Theft was considered a very grave matter if it was from a member of the village. Theft from an enemy was considered an admirable matter. Murder was not regarded too seriously and could be paid off by fines as a rule, if members of the victim's family did not take immediate and private revenge. One murder was considered wiped out by another.

As a rule, the village, or tribe, was ruled by two great chiefs, with subordinate chiefs in other villages subject to the largest one. One of these chiefs was a sort of political leader, a sachem. He was the arbiter of most things and held stern rein over all his subjects. Commonly, this chief held office by right of heredity, although, in case of a vacancy, a political leader could be chosen out of the ranks -- the choice usually being made on the basis of demonstrated wisdom and ability.

He was chosen not by heredity but by his demonstrated ability. He must be a skilled warrior, of course, and have plenty of scalps to attest his prowess. More important, however, was his skill in organizing and leading a raid, plus his ability to plan and maintain the defenses of the villages. Sometimes these two types of chiefs were united in a single person but usually the heredity, political chief was not considered able to lead the warriors.

Under the chieftains were the elders of the tribe, who sat as a sort of council. With them sat the warriors, who could take part in councils. It is not clear how voting upon a decision was made, if at all. However, every least detail of the community life was determined in these councils with the political chief or sub-chief, in the case of a subsidiary village, as a sort of moderator.

All Indians were passionately devoted to oratory and the council would sit for hours listening with delight as various members expounded their opinions in prose of inordinate length and ornamentation. A gift for oratory was priceless to the Indians and their great orators were, commonly, their great leaders; the gift of fluency and articulateness was the passport to advancement within the tribes. To the settlers, the Indians were savage heathens.

Nevertheless, the Indians did have a very real and a very serious religion which they lived devoutly. Indeed, few white men were ever so conscious of the other world as were the Indians. Of course, the Indians had no formal theology or church.

They all believed, instinctively, in a Supreme Being -- who was for all His indefiniteness, a very real influence in their lives.

He was vague and far away but was the ultimate arbiter of their future in the Happy Hunting Grounds. Just as real, was the Indians' sense of evil. This was not personified as Satan, for the Indians did not employ anthropomorphism in their religion. Both these forces, the first for good, and the other for bad, were operating for the Indian through minor units. For the sake of simplicity and understanding these forces were associated with the forces of Nature and with wild animals.

Each Indian had a guardian spirit who was always with him and was ready to help him in peril or in case of real need. At the same time, evil influences were constantly waiting to attack him, to lay traps for his unwary feet. To gain the support of the good, the Indian commonly resorted to prayer, not necessarily formal in the Christian sense.

Also, since there is always a good deal of magic entering into a primitive religion, they resorted to carrying amulets of one kind or another. There should be no mistaking the religious personality of the Indian, however. The behavior of birds and of animals was always indicative of warning or, equally so, advance word of good fortune. And according to their lights, the Indians observed their religion faithfully. It was not a one-day a week religion at all; it was constant all his life.

Certainly he burned, murdered and tortured his enemies; that was the Indian way. But he was honorable, decent, kindly and even heroic -- to members of his family and of his tribe. Beyond that pale, he was at eternal war and in war everything went -- if he chose to behave as a veritable demon against his enemies, that was laudable.

If he failed and was captured, he underwent his tortures stoically -- for he would have done precisely the same to his prisoners, if the case was reversed. This religion was in a sense administered by the medicine men.

These may be considered as clergy. They were in the sense that they led in tribal prayers during council and gave counsel on ethical matters when desired, although most Indians made their own peace with God. Actually, the medicine men were more than priests.

For one thing they were doctors. Perhaps their practice was worthless, for praying out an evil spirit with appropriate ceremonies and dances may not be as efficacious as a dose of sulpha drugs -- but at least the patient was made to feel better, and that is commonly a good part of the battle. Then too the materia medica of the Indians was far from being contemptible. They knew the herbs of the fields and forests as part of their professional training and many an English settler called upon Indian herb lore when sickness struck.

Indeed, herbs are still widely used today; some of them being an integral part of modern medical treatment. Finally, the medicine man was the tribal teacher. His duty was to preserve the traditions and the myths of his group. Of course Indians did not have any means of recording such things. Picture writing is well enough for elementary statements but it cannot replace the printed word. The Indians were very largely dependent upon tribal lore for their continued existence as a community, even as a tribe.

Their religion, their history -- all that they were and would be was crystallized in these legends and myths. It is a great loss to America that much of this material is now lost forever. What remains indicates great beauty and a remarkable understanding of creation. Perhaps America might have had a Homeric epic -- but strictly American. The medicine men, who passed on their considerable knowledge by word of mouth down through the generations, taught the children what it was fit and proper they should know.

Then, when the tribe was in council, they would be called up to propitiate Upon this "information" the Indians commonly based their decisions -- unless a great orator arose in opposition and swayed them with his tide of fluent ideas and images.

Indian medicine men should not be dismissed with contempt as magicians. They were that -- but they were also priests, doctors, teachers, historians and wise counsellors. The men of the tribe had their own sphere of duties sharply prescribed -- as did the women.

Children were allowed to play at will until they were old enough to take on their share of duties. They were cute and playful as puppies and very commonly treated with great indulgence, provided they did not over-step the bounds of good behavior. The men had as their first job the duty of protecting the family and the tribe.

Every boy was brought up to be a fighter and he spent his boyhood learning how to fight successfully. Next the men had the duty of providing food. This was no idle matter for it was often arduous to an extreme. There is a great difference between a high-powered rifle and a bow and arrow; just as there is between a split-bamboo fishing rod and a sparkling, trout-fly and a rude line twisted of bark fiber with a bone hook at the end.

The men also had the job of making their own weapons, their canoes and the clearing of land for planting. Women had their duties, too; there was a very sharp division of labor between the sexes, Perhaps the greatest humiliation. Women cared for the houses and the children, wove mats and made boxes of bark, they prepared the bark coverings for the houses, they gathered seeds, roots and berries, they tanned the skins and made leather and, amongst many other chores, cultivated the gardens.

It is common to think that the warriors loafed while the squaws worked. This is not true, save in the old sense that "man works from sun to sun; woman's work is never done. Aside from tobacco, the Indians grew principally just three staple crops -- corn, beans and pumpkins. The corn was very poor in quality compared to modern hybrids. The beans were probably of the type now known as "horticultural.

The pumpkins were far from the Blue Hubbards or the Red Turbans of today. Instead they seem to have been miserable little pumpkins of very small food value. Lacking tools, fertilizer, insecticides and fungicides, Indian gardening was reduced to its simplest terms. The braves prepared the ground by killing trees. They could not chop them down; either they killed them by chopping a girdle around the trunk or by setting fire to the woods.

Commonly gardens were moved about for fresh ground every few years; thus avoiding the need for fertilizing and also missing insect and disease troubles. The squaws then took over. Without a plow of any kind, they just took forked sticks, or a bent stick to which a shell or sharp bone was lashed, and scratched holes here and there among the dead trees and stumps.

Into each hole went a few grains of corn, a few beans and a few pumpkin seeds. The corn grew up and provided poles upon which the beans climbed. The pumpkins sprawled along the ground. This was a three story agriculture. Interestingly enough, typical corn fields with all three crops growing together, or two of them, may still be seen in the hill farms of New England.

It saves space and labor. There is a story that the Indians did fertilize each hill by putting a fish at the bottom. This is rather doubtful because the decayed fish the first few months would hinder rather than help the crop. Instead of fertilizing this way, the Indians just moved their garden patch to a new spot whenever the crops ran down.

It was a very good way indeed -- for the virgin soil, although acid in pH value was very rich and fertile -- and corn, beans and pumpkins do not mind a mildly acid soil. And of course the ashes from the burned trees provided a fertilizer rich in potash as well as neutralizing the acidity somewhat.

Indian agriculture was crude but it was effective. The corn and beans were dried and stored for winter use; the pumpkins were kept for a while but not very long for they spoiled easily. Sometimes the crops were stored in birch bark baskets or in baskets woven of canes from the marsh or red ash splints.

Usually, however, large amounts were admirably stored by burying them in a pit beyond the reach of frost and of rodents. As hunters, considering what tools they had, the Indian men were marvelous. The bow and arrow was the major tool and some of these were magnificently made. An arrow sent from a stout bow would knock over a deer or a bear, fox or wolf, much better than even a high-powered rifle can today.

The reason is, of course that the shocking power of an arrow is far greater than that of a small, if high-speed bullet. Bows were usually made of walnut or ash, and strings were deftly twisted Often they were beautifully decorated. Arrows were made of various wood, such as cedar and ash, which could be split straight.

Elder shoots, being straight, were sometimes employed, especially in hunting small game. Sharp triangles of marble, flint or quartz were employed as arrow heads although as soon as possible, the Indians traded with the whites for brass and copper for this purpose.

Bits of bone, deer antlers, spines of horse-shoe crabs and many other things were also employed for arrow heads but of them all, save metal, the flint head was considered best -- if flint could be found. Eagle feathers were used for war arrows while turkey feathers served for hunting. Deer were hunted by stalking with the bow and arrow but they were also driven into traps where they could be clubbed to death.

Bears and other animals were as a rule trapped although no Indian would hesitate to shoot an arrow into a bear and then leap upon the infuriated animal with only his knife. Moose, and all the rest, were hunted similarly. Trapping was used in Winter, especially, because in warm weather it was difficult to preserve any quantity of meat very long.

It could be, and was, cut into strips, sun dried and then smoked, but the resulting product was sort of an emergency ration and fresh meat was greatly preferred. The Indians, after the settlers came, found they vastly preferred cow to deer, bear and moose, and a great deal of friction resulted. As fishermen, the Indians were equally skilled. Hooks and lines were used but not commonly. Instead, the Indians wove nets, built traps and even shot fish along the shore or in brooks with bow and arrow.

This was something of an art, due to the refraction of the water -- but then the Indians had to be good fishermen and hunters, or else they would starve. Fur bearing animals were taken at first only for clothes but when the white traders came and offered muskets, blankets, rum and all manner of gimcracks, then the Indians turned to hunting for fur in a big way, often neglecting to provide food for their families in sufficient amount. The Indians in Winthrop, as all along shore caught cod and haddock and eels and the rest in season in quantity.

These were split and dried for winter use. Clams, oysters and lobsters were taken and enjoyed as well. Winthrop Indians were very fortunate in this respect for they could find sea food along the beaches at all times of the year. Often after a bad storm, they would simply just walk along the beach as the tide went out and pick up all they and their families could eat.

Wild roots and berries were taken, enjoyed in season, and dried for storage to some extent. Primarily, however, the Indian 42 was a meat and fish eater with his corn and beans as a supplementary ration. Commonly, most of the year they feasted in plenty but sometimes in the hitter deeps of the Winter, they went hungry for considerable periods. They were really not provident; being rather childish on the whole.

They trusted to the forest, the streams and the beaches to keep them fed. In war, the bow and arrow was employed somewhat but the typical Indian battle was a brief hand to hand struggle, launched by a surprise attack, usually at dawn. Knives, made of sharpened quartz or flint were silent and the Indian dearly loved to kill silently. War clubs were used too. These were made from the basal sections of small trees, a ball-shaped knob being carved out from the thickened portion where the roots branch off.

They were a formidable weapon, although not as silent as a knife. The tomahawk was of various kinds. An English axe was dearly prized as a weapon, because it would take and hold an edge. Before steel became available, the Indians made their tomahawks in two major types. One was simply a hammer. This was made of a lump of stone, spindle shaped, inset into the end of a cleft handle and then lashed in place.

This was a clumsy but useful weapon. The other type of tomahawk consisted of the same cleft stick with a thin wedge of stone lashed in place. This stone was quartz or flint, split as much as desirable into a plate, and then with the edge chipped off painstakingly and finally whetted to a cutting edge by endless abrasion against another "hone" of the same or a harder stone. List of awards and nominations received by Steve Carell. Retrieved November 22, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved July 14, Retrieved February 20, Retrieved July 21, Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved June 30, Archived from the original on February 9, The American Ricky Gervais is now a major movie star".

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There is a great deal of white noise around transformation in the insurance industry. Leaders face the challenge of separating hype from reality. How To Lose Belly Fat For 14 Year Old Girls How To Lose Belly Fat For Teenage Girls Fast How To Lose A Pound A Day Pro Ana Lose 20 Pounds Diet Menu How To Lose Weight By Water Fasting Many diet planners force their customers to possess a proper intake of everything. The History of Winthrop Massachusetts by William H. Clark. Winthrop Centennial Committee Winthrop, Massachusetts Note: THE author desires to express appreciation for the kindness of many people who have cooperated in preparing this history.